I wrote this piece a while ago for an online magazine. It was in response to a request for some basic information regarding this terribly misunderstood way of life. In addition I think that in this day and age where there is a lot of information on the net, it does not hurt to add my perspective. If you are thinking of following this path, I would say that it is really important to educate yourself. Understand that this is a communal religion based on lineage and bare this in mind when you are on your journey. Because of the fact that this way of life has been secret for so long for many reasons, it gives power to certain individuals to misrepresent this beautiful religion. I also decided to publish my ten things article since in these days of mass media and social network sites I have come across a few people who seem to be misappropriated some parts of this religion. Ceremonies and so called religious “icons” I have seen being sold on ebay of all places. It’s important to understand that in this tradition lineage and prayer to ancestor, building relationships and community is fundamental. There can be no real and true relationships built on the net. There has to be some form of personal contact to really know people. You cannot buy this path on an auction site! You cannot divine for yourself and dream your way down this path either! The importance of this path is it’s connection to those that brought it from Africa and ancestors who kept it alive for centuries. We pray to our lineage at every ceremony.
The path commonly known as Santeria is a belief system that has its roots in Yoruba land, West Africa as practiced in the Diaspora. This belief system took a journey from West Africa to Cuba during the times of Slavery particularly in the early part of the seventeenth century. This belief system, practices and way of life survived centuries despite attempts to eradicate it. The reason why it became popularly known as Santeria is because initially Africans saw similarities between some of the Catholic Saints and their Yoruban Deities. It was also a way of disguising their practices behind a Catholic façade. Most modern day practitioners whose branches of the religion have their roots in Cuba, like to call themselves Lucumi practitioners and the religion, is sometimes also called” La Regla De Ocha.” (The rule of the Orisha). These days the religion is widespread and practiced all over the Caribbean, Latin America and mainland United States of America, even in Europe. Yet there is still much fear, mystery and misunderstandings attached to the religion known as Santeria. Lets explode some myths. Here are ten things you should know about Santeria.
- There is only One God. Like many modern religions, Santeria followers believe in just one God, the Creator known as Olodumare. It is neither a Polytheistic nor a Pagan religion, nor an animistic one. The reason why there is confusion is that many refer to the Orishas as Gods. Strictly speaking, the Orisha are not Gods but aspects of Olodumare that are manifested in the natural world around us. It is thought that there are hundreds of Orisha, but there are some that are more popular in Santeria than others. Amongst the most well known Orishas are Elegua, the trickster deity. Respect is paid to Elegua before any other Orisha. Ogun, the blacksmith warrior and Ochosi the hunter. They are collectively known as “The Warriors. Then there is Yemaya, The Mother deity that rules the Ocean and is the mother of us all. Oshun is the deity of the sweet waters and is also the patron of all that makes life worth living, the arts, music, love and sweetness. Obatala is the King of the White Cloth, the Owner of all uninitiated heads and stands for wisdom, patience and justice. He also reminds us to respect our elders. Shango is the King of the Drum, a deity who was once a King of Oyo. His Domain is Thunder and lightening. Oya is the Orisha that guards the gates of the Cemetery; She is also Queen of the market place. There are many many others, all who have equal importance. Each individual is thought to be a child of one or other of the Orishas.
- Santeria practitioners worship their ancestors; Like most African Religions there is a great emphasis on Ancestor Worship. A reverence to the Ancestors is fundamental to the Santeria religion and before every ceremony that goes ahead libation and prayers to the ancestors are carried out. It is important to know and mention by name the members of your own family that have passed to the realm of the ancestors in addition to members of your religious ancestors. In addition to practices that have their roots in Africa, a European practice has become part of Santeria Ritual. The practice of espiritismo and Misa Blanca has been adopted by Santeria practitioners. Within this context there is no hierarchy. Everyone is encouraged to develop his or her own abilities as a medium. Prayers are carried out and songs are sung in order to call spirit to communicate with those present. The founder of this practice was a man called Allen Kardec, a French Educator who was born in France in 1804. He believed that human beings are Spirit within a material body and that our true selves are spiritual rather than material. He believed that we each have our own guardian angel assigned to us and entrusted with our care, and we in turn must elevate them so that they can look after us.
- SANTERIA IS A COMMUNITY BASED RELIGION WITH A CLEARLY DEFINED HIERARCHY: Santeria is not a do it yourself religion. Trained priests perform ceremonies. These priests belong to a community of priests who also have a long historical lineage. Many priests will practice together in an Ile (a religious house) Here are some of the Roles that you will find within the Santeria Religion. Babalawos : Babalawos are priests that have passed to Ifa, which is an ancient system of divination. Their work includes being able to divine and also carrying out various ceremonies that may arise from the divinatory process. Olorisha Iyalorisha, Babalorisha: popularly known as Santeros, these are priests of the Santeria religion. The former are priests that have not yet initiated other Santeros. The latter are female and male priests that have initiated other Santeros. They can carry out a range of tasks and duties depending on where their skill and knowledge lies and in general with some exceptions are able to initiated new priests into the religion. They have undergone a ceremony called Kariocha where their main Orisha is seated on their heads. ORIATE/OBA: these are highly skilled priests of the religion. They are also trained and skilled as Diviners of the System of the Dilogun, the mouthpiece of the Orisha. They direct the most important and complex ceremonies. Akpwon: is a knowledgeable singer of the religious songs. Omo Aña: Is a child of the Aña. The only ones that are allowed to play the sacred consecrated drums that accompany Tambors. Aborisha are non-initiated Santeria practitioners belonging to an Ile. There are also those that specialize in cooking religious food; those that are specialists in herbs; those that are beaders, throne makers and Blacksmiths and various other roles. An Iyawo is a newly initiated priest of Santeria. Iyawo means Bride of the Orisha. It must be said that initiation does not make a priest. Most competent Santeros and Babalawos have undertaken years of training and study. Like priests in other religions, there are good ones, not so good ones and bad ones.
- DIVINATION: At some point in their lives a follower of Santeria will find themselves at the feet of Ifa or the Dilogun. (Divination with 16 cowrie shells) These are the two major and highly sophisticated forms of Divination within the Santeria religion. Within a reading there is a possibility of 256 different signs that could come up. Each sign has various parables and stories attached to it. A reading will let the Client know where they are in their lives. A reading refers to the past, present and future. They will be advised on how to balance their lives; which path they should take regarding personal relationships, work and social and spiritual activity and practical recommendations on how to achieve their goals. Whether the client asking for the reading takes upon the advice and does the work given is another matter. At the end, it is a question of free will and the client has the choice as to whether or not to follow the advice of the reading. There is also the system of Obi. This is the throwing of four pieces of Coconut. This is a simpler form of divination, which is used by Santeros when they wish to communicate with their Orisha. There are five possible answers but despite its simplicity, various prayers and degree of knowledge is required before being able to throw Obi and divine with it.
- IYAWO, BRIDE OF ORISHA. An Iyawo is a newly initiated Santero. The Period of initiation takes a year and a week. The initial period of seven days in which various ceremonies are carried out, is followed by a year of a very very strict code of conduct, which includes, the wearing of white and special sacred beads and bangles. It requires the new initiate to refrain from contact with non-initiates. They are not allowed to drink alcohol, to wear make up, to shave or to eat with everyone at the table. They are not allowed out after dark, not permitted to go to crowded places, not permitted to shake hands with anyone or hug non-initiates. They are not allowed to take any objects directly from anyone or to walk barefooted. They are prohibited from having their photo taken, prohibited from partying and have to drink and eat only from a special bowl and spoon and cup that they must carry around with them at all times. They are supposed to keep themselves very pure and to spend time understanding and studying the advise from the Orisha. They must keep their heads covered at all times. Basically this year is the beginning of their new journey and they are reborn. There are many taboos and restrictions following initiation that are vitally important to follow. After the year is up. Priests still continue to follow certain taboos and restrictions that are for life. Every individual Santero has different taboos relating to them as an individual.
- THE IMPORTANT CONCEPTS OF ASHË, and IWA PELE. There are two concepts that are vital to the core beliefs of Santeria. The first one Is Ashe (also known as Ase, Ache or Axe). It means very simply life force. Ashe is generative energy that Olodumare has blessed us all with. It is energy; breath, life force and we cannot exist without it. Ashe gives us the power to create and the wisdom to see things through. Without Ashe there is no life.
Iwa Pele, means in essence good or gentle character. For Santeria followers, initiated as priests or not, It is important to grasp the meaning and entity of Iwa Pele. Living with good grace is what gives us a purpose in life. As spiritual beings we are responsible for living the best life that we have been blessed with. Our lifes work should be to evolve and to analyse our faults and improve upon them. It is important to strive to be a better person, a person with good character. By doing this one can change the energy flow around us. A title such as Babalawo, or Santero, means little, if that individual cannot show that they live and understand the concept of Iwa Pele
7. SANTERIA IS NOT WITCHCRAFT ( BRUJERIA) Many people are fearful of religions such as Santeria and Vodun since they equate the religion with practices of Witchcraft. Santeria is not Witchcraft. It is not the study of spells or using spells to harm or affect anyone else. Anyone who thinks that Santeria can be used to keep a girlfriend, harm an enemy or win the lottery has not understood the principals of Santeria and is misguided. Santeria is about living the life that has been assigned to you the best way you possibly can. Followers of Santeria may use various tools to protect themselves such as spiritual baths or the wearing of sacred Necklaces. They may use various herbs to cleanse or protect, or they may make offerings to their ancestors or to Orisha. That does not equate with Witchcraft.
8. THE IMPORTANCE OF ANIMAL SACRIFICE. Much has been made about Animal Sacrifice in the Santeria religion. Animal Sacrifice is a very very small part of a practitioner ‘s routine. Offerings to an Orisha may include a glass of water, flowers, a candle, fruit or prepared items of food. More often than not a reading will recommend behavior modification or suggestions for improving ones behavior. It is rare that an animal would be marked for Sacrifice. However it is a part of the practice of Santeria. There is nothing cruel about the sacrifices and more likely than not the animal is eaten and not thrown away. if an animal, for example a Chicken, is sacrificed, that chicken is slaughtered in the same way that animals are slaughtered in Jewish and Moslem Culture religious practice. (for example Halal or Kosher meat). Prayers accompany the sacrifice and more often than not, those attending the ceremony eat the animal. Santeria followers are in closer contact to the life and death cycle of an animal than other urban dwellers. Your average urban dweller picks up his or her massed produced chicken wrapped in plastic from the local supermarket. It is incredible to think that some young people born in the City with little or no contact with animals are not aware that the Chicken they buy from the Supermarket was once a living creature. Strange but true. The priests who carry out the sacrifice cannot do so until they have undergone a certain ceremony. They are also very highly skilled.
9. A Santeros House is their temple: In general pracitioners of this faith do not have a Church or a place of workshop as such. Their houses are their temples. It is a way of life and there are rituals and taboos to be followed every single day, in addition to celebrations on special days of the year, such as an Ocha birthday. They do not have anything such as a bible and commandments but each initiate has their own personal advice from the Orisha that they should follow. They use systems of Divination as their guides and they also look to the ancestors for help and guidance. The stories and moral tales that derive from the Divination systems were passed down aurally, however there are now books that can be bought which have some information about the different letters (Odu) of the Dilogun and Ifa Oracles. With the danger of elders passing on and taking their knowledge with them, it has become all the more important to study and understand the methods of divination and the ways of La Regla de Ocha.
An Olorisha’s Birthday is the day that they commemorate, as the beginning of their journey as a priest.; Their Ocha birthday. Sometimes a Priest may have a public drumming on that day where all members of the community are welcomed, a throne is built for the Orisha where people can come and pay homage, there is food and drink for all, and there is much singing of praise to the Orisha.
10. SINGING TO ORISHA: Praise Songs and Prayers are a very important part of this tradition. There are songs that accompany every single ceremony and it is important as a follower of this path to learn the songs in order to join in and create a good Ashé. One of the most public of ceremonies is a Ritual drumming called An Aña or Tambor de Fundamento. The ceremony is public and anyone can come in, although the uninitiated have to be at the back and not approach the drums. Everyone can sing the songs though and it is important that everyone sings in order to build up the energy. The drum are consecrated and within them lives an Orisha called Aña. Aña is the Orisha that make the drums speak. A tambor is a ceremony that involves the bringing down of Orisha. The initiated priests become vessels for the Orisha to inhabit for a short time, in order to impart their knowledge and positive advise to all that partake in the ceremony.
There are many cultural projects these days that have explored the tradition of Orisha Song, such as The London Lucumi Choir, however they are cultural interpretations and although the rhythms are the same, the drums are not consecrated. It is important to note that the songs are beautiful, the singing of them are deep but they are in essence a cultural interpretation that come from a living breathing spiritual tradition.
© DANIELA R DE ARMAS ( please credit if you are going to copy and paste!)
This is so very well written and presented, thank you! I just want to share this with my interfaith group as an introduction to my primary path. I will definitely give you credit, Alafia!
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This was great. It makes me happy to be a practitioner. Ashe my friend!
Hello. You mentioned that this is a lineage based path; is it the case that people who do not have a certain ancestry cannot practice this path?
The reason for my question is that I am not of African /Caribbean decent.
My discovery of the very word”Orisha” was “coincidental” and I had never seen it before. For some time now I’ve been having dreams of what appears to be Santa Barbara and occasionally a man holding an double headed axe. When I asked someone in spiritual bookshop he mentioned that the double-headed was one of the symbols for Shango, and this is how I encountered the word Orisha. Over time, unusual and somewhat dramatic things have manifested in my life that can’t be logically explained, but yet I can feel a force of protection around me. Whilst I acknowledge that Santa Barbara and Shango are not one and the same, I need to understand which spiritual being is trying to make contact; because I seem to get strong, jolting reminders when I don’t acknowledge these energies (i.e. ignore)or if I do something wrong in terms of offerings. I understand this can only be determined by divination. Whilst I cannot say or know that this path is the right path (or if I can practice it due to my lineage) I need to understand first and foremost which spiritual entities are around me because simply ignoring them just intensifies these “reminders”
Would I be able to have a reading so that I can understand what is going on please? Thank you.
There is blood line lineage and there is Ocha Lineage. By lineage, I mean that one practises guided by elders in the religion. If you are initiated, you are born ” from your elders” lineage and you become part of that lineage. Whether or not the path is for you, can be confirmed by divination.
Bendicion Iya. This post is so informative and timely. I logged onto WordPress to write a post, but something said for me to re-read all of yours. Maferefun Egun, Maferefun Orisha. There is so much to be said for closing the mouth and listening to the wisdom of elders. All your blog posts are exactly what I needed. Modupe o!
Santo! Thankyou so much for your feedback. It means alot Danielle. Keep safe!